|A. BASIC CONCEPTS IN FISHERIES 1. Introduction to Fisheries
(a) Meaning of fisheries.
(b) Sub-divisions of fisheries.
2. Importance of fisheries.
. PROCESSES OF FISH PRODUCTION
1. Capture fisheries
(a) Different methods involved in
(b) Materials required for capture
fisheries and their uses.
Explanation of the terms fishery and fisheries. Fisheries refer to all processes involved in fish production, processing, marketing and distribution. Fishery is one aspect of fish production.
Knowledge of the following is required
(i) Capture fisheries (fishing):
– subsistence fisheries;
– artisanal fisheries;
– industrial fisheries.
(ii) Culture fisheries (aquaculture).
Importance of fisheries e.g. food, employment, income generation, social-cultural activities, aesthetics, medicinal etc.
Various methods of capture fisheries such as hook and line, cast netting, set netting, trap/trapping, trawling, harpooning should be assessed.
Assessment should include hooks, cages, knives/cutlasses, traps/basins, spears, cast nets, gill nets, seine nets, drag nets. Knowledge of the uses of the materials is required.
- Culture fisheries.
(a) Identification of common qualities of
culturable fish species.
(b) Identification of common culturable
(c) Culture facilities.
C. TYPES OF FISH CULTURE FACILITIES AND CULTURE SYSTEMS
1. Fish ponds.
(a) Types of fish ponds.
(b) Components of fish ponds.
- Systems of aquaculture.
(a) Types of aquaculture.
(b) Management systems in aquaculture.
- Water quality control and monitoring.
(a) Definition of water quality.
(b) Water quality parameters.
| Students should have the knowledge of the qualities of culturable fish species such as hardiness, acceptability of artificial fish feeds, tolerance to poor water quality, ability to reproduce in captivity.
Students should be able to identify common culturable fishery organisms such as Clariasspp, Tilapia, Heterobranchus, shrimp, sea weeds.
Assessment should include description of culture facilities such as ponds, tanks, race ways, cages, pens.
Knowledge of different types of fish ponds: earthen ponds, concrete tanks, plastic tanks, fibre glass tanks etc is required.
Assessment should be limited to the components of fish ponds: inlets, outlets, dykes/embankments/walls, monks and spillways.
Explanation of monoculture, poly culture and integrated fish farming is required.
Assessment should include the extensive, intensive and semi intensive systems of aquaculture management.
Conditions of water that promote good health of fishery organisms for survival should be assessed .
Assessment should cover the various water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity.
|(c) Methods of monitoring water quality.
(d) Water pollution.
(e) Optimum water parameter ranges
FISH FEEDS AND FEEDING
1. Fish feed/food materials.
(a) Identification of different fish feed/food
(b) Nutritive value of fish feed ingredients
2. Fish feeding.
(a) Feeding regime for fish.
(b) Ideal feeding periods for fish.
|Knowledge of the methods used in monitoring water quality: DO meter, wrinkler method, pH meter, litmus test etc is required. Knowledge of water pollution should be assessed under the following headings:
– causes (poisons, sewage, debris, household refuse);
– prevention and control.
Knowledge of optimum water parameter ranges is required:
– DO(5.0 – 8.0 mg/l);
– pH(6.5 – 8.0);
– turbidity (secchi disc measurement less than 30 cm).
Knowledge of natural fish food (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and artificial fish feed should be covered. A clear distinction between food and feed should be made.
Assessment should cover energy yielding ingredients (corn, wheat bran, garri, rice bran etc.) and protein yielding ingredients (soya bean, fish meal, groundnut cake etc.). Details of ration formulation and biochemical details are not required.
Knowledge should cover explanation of feeding regime such as 3% – 5 % of fish body weight based on age/size is required.
Knowledge of ideal feeding periods based on age/size is required.
| (c) Methods of feeding. E.
FISH POND PREPARATION AND MANAGEMENT
1. Fish pond construction
2. Pond preparation
(a) Tools required for pond preparation.
(b) Preparation of ponds for stocking.
3. Pond management.
(a) Meaning of pond management.
(b) Pond management practices.
F. FISH HARVESTING AND POST HARVESTING PROCESSES
1. Materials and methods for harvesting fish.
(a) Fishing gear
(b) Construction and mending of fishing
(c) Methods of fish harvesting.
(d) Fishing crafts
|Assessment should cover feeding methods such as broadcasting, spot/point feeding, automated feeding. Assessment would cover site selection; construction of earthen ponds: land measurement/mapping, staking, excavation, building of dykes etc; construction of concrete ponds: land measurement/mapping, staking, stripping of the top soil, concrete base or casting, building with correct mixtures of sand, gravel and cement etc.
Knowledge of tools such as digger, head pan, cutlass, wheelbarrow, spade, hand trowel is required.
Knowledge of maintenance activities of old and new ponds should include:
– flushing of water; – repair of leakages/cracks; – liming and fertilization – drying and cleaning etc.
Assessment should cover monitoring water quality, daily checking of leakages/seepage, methods of feeding and stocking, stocking rate and time etc.
Knowledge of the various fishing gear is required.
Knowledge of the materials used for construction and mending of fishing gear is required. Details of construction and mending are required.
Assessment should cover the various methods of harvesting fish
Knowledge of the various types of fishing crafts is required.
| 2. Post-harvest handling of fish (a) Materials and methods for
(b) Methods of fish preservation.
(c) Packaging materials for fish
(d) Marketing channels for fish.
G. FISH SEED PRODUCTION
1. Brood stock selection and handling.
(a) Differences between male and female sexually matured fishes.
(b) Qualities of good breeders.
(c) Ways of handling brood stock .
2. Artificial breeding
(a) Meaning and importance of artificial breeding.
(b) Steps involved in artificial breeding of
| Assessment should cover the different methods of fish processing and preservation.
A clear distinction between fish processing and fish preservation should be made.
Knowledge of the qualities of good breeders should include hardiness, ability to breed in captivity, large size, without defects etc.
Assessment should cover ideal period of transporting fish; duration in confinement and careful handling of brood stock.
Assessment should cover: the meaning of artificial breeding as ‘manipulating the sexually matured fish to spawn or reproduce in captivity’; importance of artificial breeding such as to:
– obtain high quality hybrids;
– obtain large quantity of fish seed;
– make fingerlings readily available.
Brood stock selection, conditioning, inducement, stripping, fertilization and incubation of fertilized eggs should be assessed.
(c) Equipment and materials used in the artificial breeding of fish
3. Managing and nursing fish seed
Assessment should cover knowledge of equipment and materials such as basins, happa net, hatching troughs, syringes, aquaria tanks, microscope. Assessment should include maintaining optimum water condition (aeration), feeding with natural food organisms (plankton), introduction of artificial feed based on size, separation of dead/unfertilized eggs from hatchlings, transferring to production/grow- out ponds/tanks, sorting of shooters/jumpers etc.